For people who live with seasonal affective disorder، winter can bring much more than gale force winds and snow; it may trigger feelings of hopelessness and depression. According to new research، women are likely to fare worse than men.Medics Today said. Researchers at the University of Glasgow in the United Kingdom have found that women are much more likely than men to experience seasonal variations in depressive symptoms، with these symptoms peaking during the winter months.
Study co-author Daniel Smith، of the Institute of Health and Wellbeing at Glasgow، and team have recently reported their results in the Journal of Affective Disorders.
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a form of depression that comes and goes with the seasons. It is estimated that SAD affects approximately 5 percent of people in the United States in any given year.
Symptoms of SAD include feelings of depression، worthlessness، low energy، fatigue، and lack of interest in usually enjoyable activities، or anhedonia. SAD most often begins in the fall، with symptoms usually subsiding by the summer months.
Previous research has suggested that women are much more likely to be affected by SAD than men.
In order to find out more about how SAD varies by sex، Smith and his team conducted a cross-sectional analysis of more than 150،000 adults who were part of UK Biobank، which is health database of half a million people in the U.K.
A 'sex-specific biological mechanism'? The researchers looked at the depressive symptoms of participants during each season، as well as symptoms of low mood، anhedonia، tiredness، and tenseness.
The team also looked at the link between symptoms of depression، the length of days، and the average outdoor temperatures.