A major study into the impact of work stress on health has revealed dramatic differences in the rates of premature death between different groups of men، and between men and women، depending on existing medical conditions، as the Guardian siad. Doctors found that men with diabetes، heart disease، or who had previously suffered a stroke، were 68% more likely to die over the course of the study if they had demanding jobs with little control over their workload. The doctors says the findings of the 14-year study highlight the high toll of stress in the workplace and make clear the need for companies to help the most vulnerable men by reshaping their jobs، reducing their workloads، or offering early retirement on health grounds. While many previous studies have looked at how stress can raise the risk of physical and mental health problems، the latest work is the first major investigation into the impact of job stress on people who have already been diagnosed with cardiometabolic disease. “There are people who are particularly at risk،” said Andrew Steptoe، a British Heart Foundation professor of psychology at University College London and senior author of the study. “Companies need to think about who is especially vulnerable because of their pre-existing disease and how that can be managed.” The study tracked more than 100،000 people with and without cardiometabolic disease from Finland، France، Sweden and the UK. At the start، each person completed a questionnaire about their lifestyle، work and health. By the end of the study، 3،841 participants had died. The researchers rated people’s work stress in two different ways. The first، known as “job strain” was defined as having a demanding job but little control over those demands. The second، “effort-reward imbalance”، meant people put a lot of effort into their jobs for little reward. Even after taking into account the differences in health and lifestyle factors، such as whether people were obese، had high blood pressure، smoked or did not exercise، doctors found that among men with cardiometabolic disease، those who experienced job strain had a 68% greater risk of premature death than men in more manageable jobs. A greater risk remained even when the men exercised، controlled their weight and blood pressure، and did not smoke.