Although there have been tensions between Egypt and a number of countries in the region and the continent، the country was able to develop strategic partnerships with some states and improve its relations with many others، under the leadership of President Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi.
President Sisi continues to conduct foreign trips and has convinced major powers such as the، Russia، U.S. to back Egypt politically and economically.
• The independence of Egyptian decision-making has been achieved through maintaining multiple foreign policy alternatives and options. Essentially، Egypt’s foreign policy is now driven by Egypt’s national interests.
• Faced with the threat against its national security and its citizens’ security in Libya، Egypt responded in February 2015 and May 2017 by launching airstrikes against Islamic State targets there.
• Simultaneously، Egypt has supported the political process in Libya and the role of the U.N. envoy، participating in all rounds of dialogue between Libyan parties and sponsoring a number of meetings of Libyan tribes.
• Egypt has similarly played a proactive role in conflict negotiation in Syria، Gaza، Yemen and Iraq. Increasingly، our partners within and outside the region have come to see the soundness and accuracy of Egypt’s position on these regional issues.
• Egypt’s election to a non-permanent seat in the U.N. Security Council in 2015، with wide support from the General Assembly، is one of the most important achievements of Egyptian diplomacy since the 30 June revolution، reflecting the international community’s support for Egypt and its role in maintaining international peace and security and promoting African، Arab and developing world causes inside the Council.
• Egypt has been recently selected to head three specialized committees in the Security Council، namely the Counter-Terrorism Committee and the U.N. Sanctions Committees concerning both the Democratic Republic of Congo and Iraq.
Egypt and African Countries
• In light of Egypt’s strong historical relations with African states and its role as one of the founding members of the Organization of African Unity (now the African Union)، revitalizing Egypt’s ties with Africa has assumed utmost priority since 30 June revolution.
• In July 2014، the Egyptian Agency of Partnership for Development (EAPD) was established to strengthen Egypt’s developmental role in Africa، reflecting the government’s commitment to supporting African development efforts according to African priorities. The EAPD’s main focus areas include supporting economic integration between Egypt and African countries، as well as strengthening South-South cooperation on the basis of the respect for national sovereignty.
• In June 2015 Egypt hosted the Tripartite Summit، which gathered member states of the COMESA، SADC، and EAC، with the aim of establishing a Free Trade Area encompassing 26 countries.
• In February 2016 Egypt hosted the Investment in Africa Forum، to further boost development and cooperation in the continent.
• Relations with Ethiopia witnessed a profound transformation after President Al-Sisi’s historic visit to Ethiopia in March 2015، and his speech to the Ethiopian parliament.
• The signing of the Tripartite Declaration of Principles on the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam. This is in addition to numerous visits to African countries by Egypt’s Foreign Ministers، underscoring Egypt’s desire to strengthen ties with Africa.
• Egypt has expanded its horizons، as reflected in various Presidential visits conducted and memoranda of understanding signed with countries such as India، Singapore، Indonesia، Hungary، as well the establishment of a trilateral cooperation mechanism with Greece and Cyprus.
Egypt and China
• Chinese-Egyptian relations are ascending since December 2014 when President Abdel Fatah al-Sisi visited China agreeing with his Chinese counterpart “to develop relations into a strategic partnership which something China does not do often with other countries.”
• Among the partnerships that have witnessed significant advancement is Egypt’s relationship with China، with which Egypt now enjoys a comprehensive strategic partnership; trade between the two countries has reached 1.002 billion dollars، and China is a key investor in Egyptian developmental projects، most notably in the Suez Canal Development project، and the New Administrative Capital.
• The total Chinese investments in this Suez Canal Economic Zone exceeded $1 billion creating 3،000 jobs in Egypt.
• Around 28 Egyptian marble companies will take part in the Xiamen International Stone Fair - one of the biggest fairs for stones in the world and it displays the latest techniques in this field - that will be held in China on March 6-9، 2018.
• Chinese investments in Egypt reach $6 billion in 2018. The Yuan started to be used in Egypt، as per an agreement between the two countries’ central banks
• Egypt and China signed a number of credit agreements at a value of $5 billion between a string of Egyptian banks and the China Development Bank، Export-Import Bank of China and the Asian Development Bank in 2017.
Egypt and Russia
• Egypt also enjoys close military ties with Russia. there has been congruence upon many regional matters. These are fighting terrorism in MENA region، political solutions for the Syrian conflict، preserving the nation-state in the region’s countries، increasing the de-confliction areas، and supporting the two-state solution with Eastern Jerusalem being the capital of Palestine.
• In 2014، Al-Sisi agreed with Putin to cooperate on establishing a Russian industrial zone in northern Ataka on the axis of the Suez Canal.
• In addition to this، a memorandum of understanding has been signed to establish the Dabaa nuclear power plant along with a $25 billion loan to cover 85 percent of the plant، with Egypt funding the remaining 15 percent. Local funding for the first two reactors will be 20 and 25 percent respectively، and will gradually increase to 35 percent for the other two reactors.
• The trade balance between the two countries is in various sectors; mainly in construction materials، tourism، fresh produce، and furnishings، spinning and textiles.
• The volume of trade exchange between Egypt and Russia hiked 62 percent year-on-year in 2017، registering $6.7 billion، Russian trade representative in Cairo Nikolai Aslanov announced.
• Total Russian investments in the Egyptian market are valued at about $62.8 million across 417 projects in various fields، according to the Trade Ministry.
Egypt and US
• The inauguration of the Egypt-U.S. Strategic Dialogue in 2015 and President El Sisi’s inaugural visit Washington، DC in 2017 represented new milestones in the partnership between the two countries and broadened the their ties.
• During Egyptian President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi’s first U.S. visit since taking power in 2014، U.S. President Donald Trump offered heaping praise and help in fighting terrorists.
• Since August 2015، Egypt and the U.S. have been engaged in discussions on further strengthening ties to overcome obstacles hindering the increased flow of foreign direct investment in the Egyptian market. There have also been talks of making amendments to the TIFA and the QIZ protocol.
• According to the most recent full-year data from the U.S. Department of Commerce، the stock of U.S. direct investment in Egypt stood at USD 22.2 billion as of 2016، representing 38.6% of U.S. direct investment in Africa.
• In 2016، Egypt was the largest recipient of U.S. direct investment in Africa، and second in the Middle East after the United Arab Emirates. During the first three quarters of 2017، U.S. companies operating in Egypt recorded a cumulative income of USD 376.0 million.
• According to the Central Bank of Egypt، the U.S. was the third largest foreign direct investor in Egypt during fiscal year (FY) 201617 behind the United Kingdom and Belgium.
• The U.S. invested USD 1.8 billion، 9.2% of all investment in the country and more than double the previous fiscal year.
• During the first quarter of FY 201718 (July-September)، investment inflows from the U.S. totaled USD 432.7 million.